Retinal Tear and Retinal Detachment
The retina, which is a neural layer which provides vision in the eye is normally fixed to the eyewall. However, vitreous, which is gel-like substance and fills the back of the eye, is weakly adhered to the retina. As a result of aging and other diseases, some impairments occur in vitreous and it starts to separate from retina. During this separation, “streak of lights” may be perceived by the patient. At this point of separation, sometimes tears occur in retina. Patients may perceive ‘floaters’ or “shades in front of the eye”.
The liquid that moves through this tear to back of retina starts to separate the retina from the eyewall. This is called retinal detachment with tear. The risk is more in people having myopia, having family background diagnosed with retinal detachment, having undergone cataract surgery, and having retinal detachment in the other eye. However, the reason for retinal detachment without tear which is observed less maybe that membranes occurred in eye pull the contracted retina into the eye (tractional) or fluid (serous) accumulation.
Retinal detachment may cause partial or total vision loss. In the event that tear or weakening and deformation which may cause tears are detected before retinal detachment, laser or cryotherapy are applied around this area. With this procedure, it is aimed to prevent retinal detachment by fixing retinal layer around the tear to the eyewall.
When retinal detachment occurs, it must be treated by surgery as soon as possible.
Delaying the operation reduces the chance of success. During the surgery, depending on the situation of the eye, silicon tapes may adhere to the outer part of the eyewall, gas may be injected into the eye (pneumatic retinopexy) or vitrectomy methods may be used. After vitrectomy, gas or silicon tamponades may be placed into the eye. Recovery of the vision may take a long time, recovery may not occur entirely. With modern surgery techniques, the success rate of surgical operation of retinal detachment is more than %90. In patients who do not entirely recover, re-operation may be required.